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首頁 > 高中輔導 > 高考 > 學科備考 > 英語 >

2020屆高三一輪復習英語——主謂一致

2019-09-16 15:07:39 來源:啟達教育網

2020高考英語你準備好了嗎?主謂一致是什么?是指一個句子的主語與謂語的語法形式必須在人稱和數上保持一致。 近年來主要考查名詞、代詞、不定式、動名詞等作主語和there be句型的主謂一致。當兩個或兩個以上作主語的單數名詞用and, both ...and連接,并表示兩個不同的概念時,謂語動詞用復數形式。啟達教育老師為你整理了2020屆高三一輪復習英語——主謂一致,希望能夠對你有所幫助!

語法形式上的一致

主語為單數形式,謂語動詞用單數形式;主語為復數形式,謂語動詞也用復數形式。例如:

Jane and Mary look healthy and strong.

The number of mistakes was surprising.

解釋:主語是 the number,謂語是 was對于數字而言,它是單數,所以用了was;

反思:the number of通常跟 a number of 來對比,a number of 是大量的的意思;后面通常是可數名詞的復數,所以謂語也跟著用復數形式,比如 a number of people are rushing to the toilet.

意義上一致

1.主語形式雖為單數,但意義為復數,謂語動詞用復數。例如:

The crowd were running for their lives.

單數形式表示復數意義的詞有people,police,cattle,militia等。

2.主語形式為復數而意義上卻是單數,謂語動詞用單數。 例如:

The news was very exciting.

形復意單的單詞有news,works(工廠)和一些以ics結尾的學科名稱,如physics,politics,mathematics等。

就近原則

即謂語動詞的單、復數形式取決于最靠近它的詞語。如用連詞or,either…or,neither...nor,not only…but also等連接的并列主語,如果一個是單數,一個是復數,謂語動詞與靠近它的主語一致。例如:

Either your students or Mr. Wang knows this.

應注意的幾個問題

1.名詞作主語

1)某些集體名詞(如family,team等)作主語時,如果作為一個整體看待,謂語動詞用單數形式;如果就其中一個個成員而言,謂語動詞用復數形式。例如:

The whole family are watching TV.

His family is going to have a long journey.

這類名詞有:audience,class,club,committee,company, crew,crowd,enemy,government,group,party,public,team,etc.

名詞population一詞的使用情況跟上述類似。例如::

The population in China is very large,and eighty percent of the population in China are farmers.

“a group(crowd)of+復數名詞”等短語之后的謂語動詞也同樣可用單數或復數,前者強調整體,后者強調各個部分。

2)某些集體名詞(如people,police,cattle,militia等)只當復數看待,謂語動詞必須用復數。例如:

The police are searching for him.

3)單、復數同形的名詞作主語時,謂語動詞應根據意義決定單、復數。例如:

A sheep is over there.

Some sheep are over there.

4)名詞所有格之后的名詞被省略的情況一般只指商店、工場、住宅等,作主語時,動詞一般用單數。例如:

My Uncle's is not far from here.

The doctor's is on the side of the street.

常見的省略名詞有:the baker\'s,the barber\'s,the carpenter\'s,the Zhang\'s,etc,

表示店鋪的名詞一般作集體名詞看待,但用作主語時,謂語動詞往往用復數。例如:

Richardson\'s have a lot of leather goods to sell.

5)當名詞詞組中心詞為表示度量、距離、金額、時間、書名等復數名詞時,往往可以根據意義一致的原則,把這些復數名詞看作一個整體,謂語用單數形式。例如:

Five minutes is enough to do this exercise.

The Selected Poems of Li Bai was published long ago.

Three years has passed.

6)不定代詞each,every,no所修飾的名詞即使以and或逗號連接成多個并列主語,謂語動詞仍用單數形式。例如:

Each boy and each girl wants to serve the people in the future.

7)如果主語有more than one...或many a…構成,盡管從意義上看是復數內容,但它的謂語動詞仍用單數形式。例如:

Many a ship has been damaged in the storm.

More than one student has seen the film.

在“more+復數名詞+than one\'’結構之后,謂語詞一般用復數形式。例如:

More members than one are against your plan.

8)一些由兩個部分構成的名詞表示衣物或工具主語時;謂語通常用復數形式,如scissors,chopsticks,compasses,shoes,trousers,clothes,glasses等。但如果主語由“a kind of ,a pair of,a series of等加名詞”構成時,謂語動詞一般用單數形式。例如:

A pair of shoes was on the desk .

9)this kind of book=a book of this kind(這種書),其謂語用單數;短語this kind of men=men of this kind=these kinds of men(口語)(這一類人),但this kind of men的謂語用單數,men of this kind和these kinds of men的謂語用復數。all kinds of后跟復數名詞,謂語用復數形式。例如:

Men of this kind are dangerous.

This kind of men is dangerous.

10)復數形式的單、復數同形名詞作主語時,按意義一致的原則,作單數意義時,謂語用單數;反之,謂語用復數。這類名詞有means(方法),works(工廠),species(種類),Chinese,Japanese等。例如:

The (This) glass works was set up in l970. (這家玻璃廠建于1970年。)

The(These)glass works are near the railway station.(這些玻璃廠在火車站附近。)

當它們前面有a,such a,this,that修飾時,謂語用單數;有all,such,these,those修飾時,謂語用復數。但“means\",“no means\",“the means\"等詞前沒有以上修飾詞時,可作單數,也可用作復數。

注:work作“工作”解時是不可數名詞,作“著作”解時是可數名詞,有單復數之分。

11)如果名詞詞組中心詞是all,most,half,rest,part等詞語,表示的是復數意義,謂語動詞用復數形式;反之,用單數。例如:

All of the water is gone.

All of my classmates work hard.

12)在主謂倒裝的句子中,謂語動詞的數應與其后的主語一致。如:

Between the two windows hangs a picture.

2.由連接詞連接的名詞作主語

13)用and或both...and連接并列主語,謂語動詞通常用復數形式。例如:

Walking and riding are good exercises.

Plastics and rubber never rot.

但是,并列主語如果指的,是同一個人、同一事物或同一概念,謂語動詞用:單數形式,這時,and后面的名詞沒有冠詞。例如:

A knife and fork is on the table.

Going to bed early and getting up early is a good habit.

The girl's teacher and friend is a young doctor.

Truth and honesty is the best policy。

14)當主語后面跟有as well as,as much as,no less than, along with,with, like,rather than,together with,but,except,besides,including,in addition to等引導的詞組時,其謂語動詞的單、復數按主語的單、復數而定。例如:

The room with its furniture was rented.

The teacher as well as the students was excited.

15)以or,either...,neither...nor,not only…but also等連接的名詞(代詞)作主語,謂語動詞的單復數應根據就近一致的原則。例如:

Neither you nor I nor anybody else knows anything about it..

Either you or he is to go.

Tom or his brothers are waiting in the room.

3.代詞作主語

16)名詞型物主代詞后的動詞,既可以用單數,也可以用復數,這取決于它所代替的是單數還是復數。例如:

Ours(Our Party) is a great party.

our shoes are black,mine (=my shoes) are brown.

17)such,the same起指示代詞作用時,應根據其所指的內容來決定單、復數。例如:

Such are his words.

Such is our plan.

18)關系代詞who,that,which等在定語從句中作主語時,其謂語動詞的數應與句中先行詞的數一致。例如:

Some of the energy that is used by man comes from the sun.

Those who want to go please you’re your names here.

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